Optimal microgrid design and operations

This project aimed to address critical issues relating to developing and deploying microgrids in Indonesia and Australia. It sought to address the technical and legal frameworks necessary to deploy microgrids, both for rural electrification and for cost-effective emissions abatement in areas where grid power is available.

This project had three main parts:

  • Part one, on microgrid design and mathematical optimisation, focused on developing techniques to solve various technical issues. A range of fundamental mathematical problems resolved in this project were critical for the development of an optimal microgrid design and operations tool.
  • Part two aimed to provide a database of battery storage devices suitable for incorporation into the tool. This part of the project focused on evaluating the optimal location/distribution of battery systems and their optimal scheduling, based on various load and generation profiles. This was supplemented by developing scalable optimisation algorithms related to storage components and their implementation.
  • Part three examined legal and economic barriers and drivers affecting the microgrid and distributed energy sectors in Indonesia. Specifically, it explored the legal and policy frameworks applicable to mini-grids and microgrids. It included a substantial amount of research on barriers to utility-scale solar PV development in Indonesia. This part of the project documented issues with the implementation of Indonesian electricity law, notably the adaptation of feed-in tariffs to microgrids and problems with the connection of small-scale generation capacity to storage systems and microgrids. A subsidiary goal was building the knowledge base amongst Indonesian and Australian academics of electricity and renewable energy law in the context of climate change.

An associated aim was developing sustainable and formalised networks of research collaboration between Indonesia and Australia in the fields of energy, climate and environmental law, through seminars, workshops and co-publications, facilitated through membership of the IUCN Academy of Environmental Law.

Key achievements of this project include:

  • Developing an evidence-based decision-support tool for the optimal design and operation of microgrids, providing an investment evaluation tool that offers technical feasibility guarantees.
  • Using the decision support tool to inform investment strategies in Indonesian and Australian microgrid deployment projects.
  • Consolidating and expanding the knowledge base amongst Indonesian and Australian energy and environmental law and policy academics of the specific topics of electricity law and renewable energy law in the context of addressing climate change, by disseminating research results more widely.
  • Disseminating knowledge from the research project to influence policy debates in both countries and ensure corporate and government decision makers are aware of innovative clean energy technologies.


Journal articles

  • Wang, G., & Hijazi, H. (2018). Mathematical programming methods for microgrid design and operations: a survey on deterministic and stochastic approaches. Computational Optimization and Applications, 71(2),553-608. DOI: 10.1007/s10589-018-0015-1


  • Regulatory and policy transformation for microgrid enablement. Meningkatkan hukum, regulasi dan kebijakan untuk mengaktifkan dan memfasilitasi microgrids energi terbarukan. Australia-Indonesia Centre Energy Cluster Workshop, Australia Indonesia Centre Summit, Presentation at Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, 24 August 2016.
  • (2016) “What’s Blocking Solar PV in Indonesia? Will the new FIT law work?” Australian Photovoltaic Institute 2016 Asia-Pacific Solar Research Conference, ANU 30 November 2016
  • Critical analysis of current regulatory frameworks to encourage investment in solar PV in Indonesia. Innovations Seminar Series, School of Regulation and Global Governance (Regnet), ANU, 11 April 2017
  • Law and policy to encourage renewable energy microgrids in Indonesia. International Tropical Renewable Energy Conference, University of Indonesia, 23 November 2017.
  • Observations on the Recent Policy and Regulatory Framework for Microgrids and Distributed Energy in Indonesia. Energy Cluster Workshop, Canberra. 2018
  • Meningkatkan hukum, regulasi dan kebijakan untuk mengaktifkan dan memfasilitasi microgrids energi terbarukan. Australia Indonesia Centre, Energy Cluster Workshop, Presentation at ANU, Canberra 19 July 2018.