Mapping the energy resources and infrastructure of Indonesia for efficient and equitable system growth, and electrification of remote/island populations

This project aimed to form a comprehensive and comparative understanding of the electricity systems in Indonesia and Australia. This understanding was intended to be a cornerstone of the Energy Cluster’s work. This project explored opportunities for and barriers to the growth and transformation of energy systems in both countries. In particular, it focused on the supply of power to remote and island populations that do not yet have access to electricity.

The project canvassed existing work on assessing energy resources and the costs of new energy generation technologies, as well as the structure and planning processes for investing in sustainable energy. This included a high-level literature review, as well as interviews with Indonesia’s Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources and other stakeholders. Researchers consulted further energy experts in Indonesia to confirm the understanding gleaned from the literature and interviews.

The conclusions of this led to the thematic focus of the Energy Cluster investment program and the following concrete outcomes:

  • A memorandum of understanding with Indonesia’s energy ministry under then-Energy Minister Pak Sudirman Said and the Bali Clean Energy Centre.
  • Committing resources to developing a methodology for replicating Australian work in energy resource assessment and energy technology cost assessment.
  • Publication of the Indonesian Energy Technology Assessment in 2018.
  • Microgrids a key part of Indonesia Terang plan (Brighten Indonesia under the Bali Clean Energy Centre). Lapsed with appointment of new energy minister in 2017.
  • An Institute of Essential Services Reform (IESR), Agora Energiewende and European Climate Foundation study to determine ability of Java-Bali-Sumatra grids to integrate large amounts of renewables from 2018 to 2027.
  • An APEC study on the provision of sustainable energy solutions to the Bitung Special Economic Zone and Low Carbon Model Town (LCMT) and north Sulawesi.


  • There is limited data available for analysis of energy resources and energy technology costs in Indonesia.
  • There are limited data and models available for energy system planning and decision making for electrification of remote communities in Indonesia as well as for a sustainable expansion of the electricity grid in Indonesia.
  • Working with the Indonesian government is possible, and there are promising opportunities for deep partnerships with NGOs. Funding is available from international sources, for example the successful raising of funds from APEC for the North Sulawesi Bitung low carbon model town project, and the European Climate Fund and Agora Energiewende project for modelling integration of renewables.