The city of Cibinong is the capital of the kecamatan of Cibinong and Bogor Regency, covering an area of 57 hectares. The district incorporates a number of large lakes (situs) and a population of 357,000 people. Within Cibinong, there is a large development planned along the lakefront of the situ Cikaret and Bentenan by the Bogor Regency Planning Department called the Situ Front City (SFC). This project is one of the main urban development areas in Bogor Regency.
The masterplan is based on the winning design from a competition, and construction is due to commence in 2020. The SFC master plan included basic water-sensitive urban design principles in the landscape and public space design using green technology tools to deliver a better environmental performance of the urban development. However, the master plan did not base its recommendations on hydrological and hydraulic modelling, which are essential to provide a more refined implementation of green Infrastructure and to understand the water systems of the area. The Urban Water Cluster provided a set of recommendations to make the SFC master plan more water sensitive and support the transition of Cibinong to a Water Sensitive City.
The research team identified several problems faced by the development. The first issue is that of pollution, where some dwellings are discharging wastewater directly into lakes. The second issue is the disconnection between lakes’ waterfronts and the surrounding area, where waterfronts are not being actively used by the locals. The third issue surrounds the lack of hydrological modelling in the master-planning process. As major changes to the water bodies are proposed, a thorough hydrological analysis of the area is essential. The fourth issue in the development is lack of water discharge capacity studies. For the degree of change the development proposes, the study of sufficient water capacity is lacking.
The research team utilised spatial and social analysis tools to offer recommendations for the creation of a water-sensitive city. Starting with a visioning focus group discussion, community mapping was developed along with Water Sensitive City Index and SWOT Analysis. Land use mapping was conducted to give an overview of possible green technology and green infrastructure implementation. Hydrology modelling, including water balance models and the use of a tool for green infrastructure allocation, was performed and scenarios developed. Feedback on scenarios for public space allocation and uses was delivered in a forum including community members. Interviews were conducted to collect information on government processes for water management.
Results and achievements
Cities can provide many opportunities for community and economic development. Since the decentralisation of governance and the partial devolution of regulatory authority, cities have gained the power to considerably influence the business environment and improve the regulatory environment. With effectively planned infrastructure, policies and enforcement, urbanisation can lead to increased efficiency, opportunity, access to services, and good quality of life for the masses.
Researchers made a number of recommendations for a better design of public spaces for the SFC master plan, and similar urban developments. These were:
- Include green technology based on hydrology and water balance models.
- Provide alternative plans to cope with challenges related to change in climate patterns.
- Explore the potential of alternative sources of water (mainly rainwater harvesting) in the urban design to provide more diverse and adaptable public spaces and reduce the need of mains water for non-drinking purposes.
- Include the approach for WSUD proposed in the SFC master plan in planning regulations, so it can be applied widely in other similar projects and provide guidelines for the utilisation of green technology.
- Monitor the performance of the green technology implemented in the new urban developments.
The government can include the assessment from the Green Building Council Indonesia, which was founded in 2009 by professionals in the building design and construction sector who are concerned with the application of the green building concept. The GBC Indonesia rates buildings and neighbourhoods on the following six indicators: appropriate site development; energy efficiency and conservation; water conservation; material resources and cycle; indoor air health and comfort; building and environment management.
Some recommendations for a more successful community participation strategy for the SFC master plan and other similar urban developments are: include the community more actively in the planning process from early stages; stimulate the local economy by incorporating existing trades into the commercial areas of the master plan; and retain the existing productive areas in the area, mainly the rice paddy fields located in the area between the Situ Cikaret and the Situ Bantenan.
Professor Diego Ramírez-Lovering
Director, Informal Cities Laboratory
Dr Raul Marino
Professor Hadi Susilo Arifin
Division Head, Landscape Management
Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB)
Dr Dwinanti Rika Marthanty
Senior Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering
Dr Hendricus Andy Simarmata
Indonesian Association of Urban and Regional Planners (IAP)
Professor Hidayat Pawitan
Professor, Water Sources Hydrology
Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB)